Wednesday, June 5, 2013

Al Nahw al Waadih: LESSON 4

LESSON 4: الفاعل or The Do-er

Examples of Sentences:
 1. طار العصفور - The sparrow flew
 2. جرى الحصان - The horse ran
 3. لعب الولد - The boy played
 4.يعوم السمك - The fish is flowing(in the water)
 5. يلسع البعوض - The mosquito is biting
 6. تأكل البنت - The girl is eating

 All of the words above are examples of sentences and each sentence is made up of a FI3l (action) and an ISM (noun), and if we look in the first sentence for example, we see that the one who TAARA(flew) is the sparrow(al3usfur), and the one who JARA(ran) is the horse, and the one who LA3IBA(played) is the boy.

 So the sparrow is the one who did the act of flying and the horse is the one who did the act of running and so on.. And if we look at each ISM ( noun) , we find that the FI3L(verb) has perceded it.
EXAMPLE: طار العصفور. The verb(طار) is before the ISM(sparrow).

 We also find that the ISM in this case is MARFU3(ending with a dhamma).

EXAMPLES: al 3usfuru, alhisaanu, alwaladu, as-samaku, albu3udhu, albintu)

 القاعدة السابعة: الفاعل: إسمٌ مرفوعٌ تقدمه فعلٌ ، ودل على الذي فعل الفعل
  The Seventh Principle: ALFAA3il (The Doer): is an Ism(noun) that is marfu3( ending with dhamma) and has a fi3l(verb) proceeding it and it(the faa3il) shows the one who did the action.

تمرينات (some exercises for this lesson) ضع فاعلاً لكل فعل من الأفعال الأتي (Place a doer for each verb from the following verbs)
1. نبح - barked. EX: نبح القلب (THE DOG BARKED)
2. يضحك - laughing EX: يضحك محمد (MUHMMAD IS LAUGHING)
3. يبكي - crying EX:يبكي الولد (THE BOY IS CRYING)
4. نطح - burped EX: نطح سليمان (SULAYMAN BURPED)
5. يشرب - drinking EX: يشرب الطبيب كوب من ماء بارد (THE DOCTOR IS DRINKING A CUP OF COLD WATER)
6. عطس- sneezed EX: عطس موسى ثم حمد الله ( MUSA SNEEZED AND THEN HE PRAISED ALLAH)
7. سافر - travelled EX: سافر التاجر إلى بلده (THE BUSINESSMAN TRAVELLED TO HIS COUNTRY)
8. يركب -riding EX: يركب المقاتل فرسه (THE FIGHTER IS CLIMBING HIS HORSE)

  تمرين في الاعراب (an exercise in i3raab-the breaking down of grammar) 

 حضر الغائب 1 meaning: "The absent one came."

 حضر - فعل ماض HADAR- Is a past tense verb

 الغائب - فاعل مرفوع ALGHAAEB - Is faa3il (do-er) that is marfu3 (ending with dhamma).

 2.يطير الذباب meaning: "The fly is flying"

 يطير - فعل مضارع YATEERU- Is a present tense verb

 الذباب- فاعل مرفوع ADh-Dhubaabu- Is faa3il (do-er) that is marfu3 (ending with dhamma).


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