Wednesday, June 5, 2013

Al Nahw al Waadih: LESSON 2

LESSON 2: Parts of a Sentence - أجزاء الجملة 

This lesson is telling us the categories of a basic sentence structure in the Arabic language.

 The examples of the sentences we shall use:

1. ركب إبراهيم الحصان - Ibraahim boarded the horse.
2. يداعب إسماعيل القط - Ismaaeel is playing the kitten.
3.يحصد الفلاح القمح - The farmer is harvesting the wheat.
4. تأكل الشاة فولاً وشعيرا - The sheep is eating grain(barley).
5. سمعت النصيحة - I listened to the advice.
6.يسطع النور في الحجرة - The light is entering (pouring in) the room.
7. تجري السفينة على الماء - The ship is sailing the water.
8.هل تحب السفر ؟ - Do you love travel?

We learned in the previous lesson that jumla mufeeda is made up of parts which are words(kalimaat). If we look at the above sentences and their meanings, we will find that Ibraahim, Ismaaeel, and the farmer are all words that name people(ashkaas, individuals). And the words; hisaan(horse), qidd(kitten), and shaat(sheep) are all words that name types of animals. and the words; qumh(wheat), fool, and sha'eer are all words that name type of nabaat(plants, etc), and the words; room(hujra), safeena(ship), and water name inanimate(nonliving) things. So each one of these words is an ism.

 And if we look at the other words such as; ركب، يداعب ، يحصد ، تأكل are all words that show us what is taking place in a specific time(zaman khaas), so RAKIBA(he went on) shows us an action taking place in the PAST tense.( this is known as fi3l maadi) , YUDA3IB(playing with) is a verb that is in the PRESENT tense(known as fi3l mudaari3).

 Finally, if we look at the words or expressions : في، على، وهل . FEE means, "in" ALA means "on or upon" and HAL means " do" These words are all HURUF or prepositions. If they are used alone, one will never get a complete understanding and therefore, these expressions are used with in the sentence and NEVER alone.

 PARTS of sentence are divided into 3 categories:

 إسم - كل لفظ يسمي به إنسان أو حيوان أو نبات أو جماد أو أي شيئ آخر

Meaning: ISM is a noun, which is every word that names a person, animal, plant, inanimate things or anything else of that sort.

فعل -كل لفظ يدل على حصول عمل في زمن خاص

Meaning: FI3l is every word that leads or shows an action taking place in a specific time(zaman khass)

 حرف - كل لفظ لا يظهر معناه إلا مع غيره

Meaning:  HARF means every lafdh (word, expression) whose meaning is not clear by itself. EX: feehi, 3ala, ilaa, min, bi, are HURUF(prepositions)

    القاعدة الثالثة : الكلمة ثلاثة أنواع : إسمٌ ، وفعلٌ وحرفٌ

The Third Principle:The kalima is of 3 types: 1. ism ( a noun) 2. fi3l ( a verb) 3. harf( a preposition)


اقرا الجمل الآتية وبين الأسماء التي تدل على أشخاص والتي تدل على حيوان والتي تدل على نبات والتي تدل على جماد

  Read the sentences and make clear the nouns that name people and the ones that name animals, and the ones that name plants and nonliving things.

 فريد يجري في الشارع - Fareed is running in the street.

 علي يركب الحمار -Ali is riding the donkey.

 يحب الولد البرتقال - The boy loves the orange.

 يحترق الحطب - The firewood is burning.

 الكلب ينام في البستان - The dog is sleeping in the garden.

 يتسلق الغلمان في الجبل - The boys are climbing the mountain.

 الثعلب يأكل الدجاج - The fox is eating the chicken.

 البستاني يجمع الأزهار - The gardener is collecting the flowers.

إفترس الذئب كبشاً - The wolf hunted a lamb.

 يسبح الأولاد في البحر - The boys are swimming in the ocean.

 الحديد يدوب في النار - The iron is melting in the fire.

 المداد في الدواة- The ink is in the inkstand.

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